Minggu, 01 Mei 2011

Pura Tirtha Empul

Is One of the places of interest in Bali which is Build for a thousand year a go,this temple is full of historical and the myths story that local people believe,In this Temple you will able to find so many of  archeological stuff from pre-history BC and history period

The temple is located at the area of Banjar Tampak Siring, the administrative area of Kecamatan Tampak Siring, Kabupaten Gianyar.The places is a beginning of a river with big spring water nd has plain area quiet wide more then 300 meters wide at low position with west north and east sides are high land. At the west highland is standing the presidential palaces built during first president of Indonesia. The river that starts from this place forms the historic river of Pekerisan, along which left and right sides are found ancient rock carvings and 2 of them are well known in tourism such as Pura Gunung Kawi and Goa Gajah. The activities of ancient people is disclosed to have been started since around 960 AD. King Sri Chandra Bhaya Singha Varmadeva constructed a temple with the name "Tirtha di air Mpul" from which is believed it got the current name. It is also refer to the spring water in Balinese Tirtha di air Mpul means water at the spring. This inscription is carved on a stone found at nearby village called Manukaya. Every full moon of 4th month of Caka year this stone is brought to Tirta Empul to be bathed. Only after Dr. Stutterheim succeeded to decipher the inscription that the people were persuaded not bathe the stone which has caused the erosion, and erased the alphabets. The reading of the inscription then confirmed by other researches such as Dr. Goris and Professor Charles Damais.

Dr. Stutterheim after editing the inscription counted exactly the foundation of the temple as on a day of Purnama Kapat Caka Year or 4th month on full moon. In Manukaya itself there is found an old foundation of temple characterized by Buddhist at the village called Basangambu. This temple foundation has been successfully reconstructed and giving the impression of ancient Chams temple of 9th century. Not far from Tirta Empul to the south also has been found a very old construction at the temple of Mengening which has also been successfully reconstructed and is considered the prototype of meru shrine in Bali look like the base of Pagoda temple in Thailand.
Tirta Empul surrounding from the area of Tampak Siring to the south to the area of Pejeng it is amazing rich heritages of ancients works from rock cut carving, stone carvings and base of constructions, even a bronze drum identified as the work of Dongson bronze age. It was clear that the area is very fertile, plain and plenty of water for farming included that the originated from Tirta Empul water spring. So it is easy to understand whey people since a thousand years ago already attracted to come and stay in this area. Even historians thought that once the center of ancient Bali was around Pejeng or Bedulu area, although no prove can be found until today.

In the temple itself which now has around 15 shrines, which are all new except stone sculptures of buffalo and a lingga. Buffalo is considered the mount of God Brahma in the ancient myth of Indian Purana, the buffalo is called Nandi.

In Bali there is a myth written probably very late, called Usana Bali says that a Balinese arrogant king named Maya Denawa did not believe in god, and objected the people to make rituals. This situation was heard by the Gods and decided to kick away the king from his palace. The punishment for the king came under warrior of Bhatara Indra arrived to attack Maya Denawa and put him away from the throne. The fierce war at last defeated the soldiers of Maya Denawa but But Maya Denawa was so difficult to hunt, as every time he hided at certain object he was able to changed himself to look like the object, so Indra ordered his warriors to attack every object, and Maya Denawa run to current place of Tampak Siring and poisoned the water. When the soldiers of Indra tired and thirsty they drank the water causing all of them died. Realizing this situation Indra planted his cane and did spring the water. This spring water was used to spray the dead soldier so they alive again. It is said by the myth that this spring water created by the cane of Indra is now Tirta Empul.

Since immemorial time every village or artist group who have the entertainment of Barong Dance will come to Tirta Empul during full moon of 4th month, especiall to the area surrounding the village of Tampak Siring and later included also in the wide area of Kapupaten Gianyar. When tourism started to develop in Bali around 1965 one tour package called " Barong dance and Kintamani tour " was the most popular day sightseeing. The highlight of the tour which is until now still exist are Bali artist's colonies, Tirta Empul Temple, and Batur Caldera. According to some senior tour guides who have been working in the industry for more than 2 decades some tourists from Europe and U.S.A regularly come to Bali, for more than 5 times since 1960s and every times they come they always repeat to see this tour package. It might be the real spirit of Balinese nature and culture are mixed here which can give various inspirations, probably from business of small handicrafts until 5 stars hotels or restaurants for those who saw this as an opportunity. This has been proved by the tremendous development of tourism facilities in Bali from 1980s to 1995. The writer believe very much that what is the value of this trip has been triggering other area of Bali to be known in tourism industry. Below is described shortly how these 3 areas had been attracting people from immemorial times.

So this water source until now is believed to be the source of life and prosperity. It is especially correct if we associate this water spring with the irrigation system around the area, as it gives hundreds of hectares of rice field from Tampak Siring until Pejeng areas.
Historically Tampak Siring with Tirta Empul temple is a continuation of Pejeng areas of archaeological sites, where along Pekerisan river that split the area of Gianyar and Bangli preserved a great number of ancient remains although it is a small stroke of chisel on the steep drop of the river up to the intricate rock carving such as Gunung Kawi temple, and Mangening stone shrine which are only less than 2 kms each others.

The present temple as a common temple of Bali, the layout is divided into 3 courtyards. At the middle courtyard is constructed and first courtyards were constructed swimming pool with 13 fountains, used as holy water for cremation or dead ceremony. Other has pool with 8 fountains, used as water for symbolic cleaning ( spiritual purification ), when a person is sick it is believed he is infected by immaterial dirt.
Pool with 5 fountains for holy water used people from outside come to pray.

At the first courtyard is also a pool for public bathing place.
Total number of shrines are 30 nits currently, after later addition by local people who have the responsibility for the temple. The ceremony is performed every 210 days, and fixed date can be read in Balinese calendar.

There is an old stone sculpture being preserved at the last courtyard of the temple in the form of buffalo. The condition of the carving is badly damage, so it can not be observed in detail to fix the type. Buffalo in the pantheon of Hindu is considered as the mount of god Shiwa and this animal is called " Nandi "

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